Why Paid Memberships Are the New Loyalty

The below article was originally published by businessoffashion.com, written by Doug Stevens.

What if businesses could turn transient loyalty into something deeper and more engaging?

Spending on loyalty programs is through the roof.

In 2016, the consumer loyalty management market was valued at $1.93 billion. By 2023 that figure is expected to reach nearly $6.95 billion — an annual compounded growth rate of nearly 21 percent. In the US alone, consumers now collectively hold more than 3.8 billion loyalty program memberships!

And who could blame retailers for wanting loyal customers? It’s a well-worn fact that retaining a customer costs a fraction of that of finding a new one. Returning customers also spend more than first-time customers — up to 67 percent more! And if that weren’t enough, even a small drop in loyalty can be enough to kill a business. No one disputes the intrinsic value of loyalty. Which brings us to an inconvenient truth.

The Loyalty Lie

Most loyalty programs don’t generate loyalty. In fact, a 2012 benchmark study from Edgell Knowledge Network, which surveyed the loyalty programs of 60 retailers, found that customers of retailers that offer a loyalty program were not recognizably more loyal than customers of those that don’t. What’s worse, according to the same study, is that 81 percent of loyalty program members don’t even understand what their rewards entitlements consist of or how they’re redeemed. And this shouldn’t come as a surprise considering the average household belongs to eighteen loyalty schemes!

Retailers are spending mountains of money to retain the very customers they had the least chance of losing to begin with.

These findings were echoed in a 2017 study by Accenture, which also suggested almost a quarter of consumers actually have either a “negative or non-existent response” to loyalty programs.

Here’s the real punch in the gut though: According to a 2015 study by Colloquy, only 42 percent loyalty programme members are even active or engaged. Further research shows that, as consumers, we are most likely to seek out loyalty programmes with brands we already like. Thus, many retailers are spending mountains of money to retain the very customers they had the least chance of losing to begin with, in essence, subsidising purchases that would have been made anyway. Put another way, very few people will drink four bad cups of coffee simply because every fifth cup is free.

So, while it pays to have loyal customers, you can’t simply pay customers to be loyal.

But what if a business could turn transient loyalty into something deeper, more committed and more monogamous? What if the relationship between the retailer and the consumer could go from being transactional to being transformational and best of all, what if instead of paying customers to be loyal, those same customers actually paid the retailers they want to be loyal to?

 It’s a concept Amazon understands only too well. In its latest quarter, Amazon reported growing its paid Prime membership ranks by 47 percent. Prime consumption junkies spend 250 percent more each year than non-members. In fact, an astonishing 82 percent of US households with incomes over 110 thousand dollars per years are Prime members. And while standard loyalty programmes tend to bleed engagement over time, Prime members actually become moreengaged. Consumer Intelligence Research Partners noted that 73 percent of 30-day trial subscribers end up paying for the first full year of Amazon Prime, 91 percent of first-year paid subscribers renew for a second year and 96 percent of second-year paid subscribers renew for a third year.

Amazon is merely the tip of a growing spear of retailers awakening to the power of paid membership.

The difference of course is that Prime is not merely a points or rewards system but rather a carefully curated ecosystem of value, service and content.  It’s the veritable key to the kingdom of all Amazon has to offer. Special pricing, promotions, streaming music, on-demand video and of course, fast, free shipping are among the benefits members are willing to spend $99.00 per year to access. And Amazon is merely the tip of a growing spear of retailers awakening to the power of paid membership.

For ten dollars annually, Sephora’s Flash programme offers members unlimited free two-day shipping with no minimum purchase requirements. GameStop’s Power Up Pro and Elite membership programmes, $14.99 and $29.99 per year respectively, offer members a select set of special gifts, discounts, benefits and privileges. Restoration Hardware’s RH Member programme costs $100 per year to join and offers members a range of perks and privileges including free interior design services and early access to promotional events.

What’s love got to do with it?

What Amazon, GameStop, Sephora and Restoration Hardware understand is that there’s a difference between loyalty and love. Loyalty simply means you’ve managed to put a card in the customer’s wallet. Paid membership means you’ve secured a place in the customer’s heart (See: Creating Customer Love). Membership — even for a small fee — forms a sense of exclusivity and transforms the customer experience in a way that traditional loyalty programs simply cannot. Getting a customer to lay down a membership fee forms an entirely new degree of mutual commitment.  Even a small sunk cost will make a customer implicitly more engaged with a brand.

 Membership fees are true and present revenue a retailer cannot afford to lose.

By the same token, charging a membership fee creates an onus on the part of the retailer to deliver value against the heightened expectations the fee creates. After all, membership fees are true and present revenue a retailer cannot afford to lose, unlike the potential, future revenue traditional loyalty programs hope to realize.

Perhaps the most compelling reason of all to consider membership over loyalty is that consumers clearly want it. Research by Loyalty One suggests “sixty-two percent of consumer respondents said they would consider joining a fee-based rewards programme if their favourite retailer offered one.” Among Millennials, the numbers were even more compelling with “75 percent of 18-24 year-olds and 77 percent of 25-34 year-olds saying they’d pay to belong.”

Lastly, for retailers with a genuine interest in understanding their customers across channels, membership is the Holy Grail. A membership is true and unfiltered permission to engage and eliminates any ambiguity about the relationship. Paying members are more inclined to share personal information because they inherently understand that doing so contributes to shaping their experience with a brand. It’s this level of consumer transparency that allows brands to more clearly understand customer actions throughout their ecosystem and across channels.

So if you’re serious about creating truly loyal customers, I suggest you put their money where your mouth is. Paid membership is the new loyalty.

premium loyalty, paid loyalty, inte q

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New Research — Omnichannel Marketing: The Key Customer Experience

The below is an excerpt from “Omni-Channel Marketing: The Key to Unlocking a Powerful Customer Experience,”originally published by Target Marketing Magazine, written by Thorin McGee

“Omnichannel” marketing often seen as a retail buzzword. But with devices and communication channels proliferating faster than ever, the omnichannel customer experience is no longer something other marketers can ignore.

Target Marketing conduced a broad survey of their audience to ask how they approached omnichannel marketing and the customer journey. The complete results were just released in the report “Omnichannel Marketing: The Key to Unlocking a Powerful Customer Experience.

The report reveals just how important omnichannel marketing is across all industries, what aspects of it are most important to the modern customer journey, the challenges marketers face in implementing omnichannel best practices, and how marketers are building strategies to meet those challenges.

Here are some of the report’s core findings:

Who Cares About Omnichannel Strategy?

While omnichannel marketing is often seen as a priority for retailers, the need for omnichannel understanding, optimization and delivering a cohesive customer experience has become important to marketers across all industries.

We asked how important the omnichannel experience was in each respondent’s own industry. Only 6 percent said it wasn’t important, the lowest answer option, while 34 percent said it was very important, the highest possible response and the most common answer.

Chart 1: How important is it that customers have a cohesive omnichannel experience in your industry?Overall, 74 percent said it was important, fairly important or very important (essentially a 3 or higher on a five-point scale). That’s a high number for an issue that is often seen as a predominantly a retail problem. But when we look at how the different industries responded to this question, below, “retail and e-tail” wasn’t even in the top five.

Chart 2 Is it important that customers have a cohesive omnichannel experience in your industry?Retail comes in at 74 percent, but healthcare, travel, IT and financial services all had over 80 percent of respondents say omnichannel was “important” or more.

“In today’s environment, [omnichannel] is extremely important, no matter what industry you are in,” said one non-retail respondent. “Today’s customers are self-educating and want the ‘Amazon’ experience. We struggle to provide anything close to this.”

Whether you’re marketing financial services, healthcare, consumer package goods or B2B services, the omnichannel customer experience is an issue you have to take seriously. It will have a bigger impact on your brand reputation than any ad  you’ll ever buy.

Marketing Budgets, Customer Data and Other Obstacles

Creating an integrated, personalized, satisfying omnichannel customer journey is not easy. We asked what challenges stood in the way of delivering a better experience. For each challenge, we asked whether it was “Not a Challenge,” “Somewhat Challenging,” “Challenging,” “Very Challenging” or “Extremely Challenging.”

We distilled that into a 1-to-5 scale (1 for “Not a Challenge” and 5 for “Extremely Challenging”) to produce this Chart:

Overall, the answers to this question suggest that marketers do not feel overwhelmed by any aspect of the omnichannel experience. But they lack the budget, cross-platform data and customer recognition capabilities, and personnel with the necessary skills to create the omnichannel experiences demanded by today’s customer journey.

By far, lack of budget is the biggest challenge, with an average score roughly 10 percent higher than any other answer. That’s followed by lack of personnel with the necessary skills and knowledge, and accessing the data across channels (which can be viewed as a function of the first two, because it takes marketing technology and data know-how to track customers across platforms).

When we compare that to the answers for what respondents said made an omnichannel experience good — the report has room to get into those answers more, but they emphasized consistent brand experience, channel integration and tracking customers across channels — it becomes clear that the things necessary to create a great omnichannel experience are exactly what these challenges are preventing.

Marketers are aware of those gaps, and closing them is a major goal for many brands in 2018. While a quarter of respondents say they are decreasing omnichannel budgets, nearly half are increasing them, including 5 percent who are doubling their budgets to enable omnichannel marketing strategies.

Omnichannel Marketing Budgets: In 2018, do you plan to invest more budget into omnichannel services and capabilities than in 2017?Recalling that budgets were the top challenge, this is great news. Marketers need to invest in these capabilities in order to deliver those seven keys to a great omnichannel experience.

But as important as getting the budget for omnichannel is, marketers must apply those funds to the right portions of the customer journey to create a great customer experience.



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What is Hyper-Personalization?

If we know so much about our customers, why do we speak to them as if we don’t?

Being relevant to your customers is a meaningful way to create loyalty. Providing personalized communication tailored to an individual’s specific needs and interests has already become the expectation. Hyper-personalization takes this a step further.

Marketers focused on hyper-personalization are deliberately abandoning broad reach marketing messages and tactics and creating a myriad of campaigns for multiple groups of people.

By using predictive technology and data, brands can gain a deeper understanding of their customers as individuals. When targeting shoppers individually, they don’t have to work very hard to find the products and services they are interested in because you have designed the brand experience to bring the products to them.

Why is this such an important concept? Because it’s what people want. They want authentic experiences they can actually relate to—something that means something to them.


This morning, like every morning, I logged into my Spotify account (along with 75 million other Spotify users), and received a custom new playlist. A compilation of 30 songs specific to my taste in music were ready and waiting for me. It feels like a gift from a music-loving friend, who might have once made me a mixed tape with my name scribbled on the front.

I know these playlists, from Spotify’s Discover Weekly feature, were built by an algorithm, but they sure have a way of making me feel special.


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Executive Insights Webinar: 10 Ways to Get More out of Your Customer Loyalty Program in 2018

In a world where competitors are simply a click away, customer loyalty is more important than ever. If you want your customers to be loyal, you can’t treat them like everyone else. Doing more for your customers in 2018 will help your loyalty program do more for your bottom line.

On Thursday, February 22, 2018, at 12:30pm CST, Inte Q will host a webinar titled “10 Ways to Get More out of Your Customer Loyalty Program in 2018”, presented by retail marketing expert, Chris Duncan.

Chis Duncan, Chief Marketing Officer at Inte Q, works with clients to enhance their customer experience and Create Customer Love™ for their brand. Duncan was most recently the Vice President, Digital and CRM Marketing at Kohl’s Department stores, leading their digital transformation and launching their award-winning loyalty program. Prior to that, Duncan was Vice President of Marketing for OfficeMax, leading their B2B and B2C global marketing teams.

In this interactive webinar, we will address the following:

  • How doing more for your customer can do more for your bottom line;
  • What makes first-party data so valuable and what you can do with it;
  • 10 ways to get more value out of your loyalty program in 2018, including: creating a positive customer experience, embracing omni-channel marketing, viewing loyalty as a two way street, and so much more.

To register for this free, educational webinar, visit inteqinsights.com/2018LoyaltyWebinar.

Inte Q Customer Loyalty Webinar

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Do You View Customer Loyalty as a Two Way Street?

73% of consumers say loyalty programs should be a way for brands to show how loyal they are to them, but…

…66% of marketing executives say the programs should be a way for consumers to show how loyal they are to their business.*

You may be asking your customers to be loyal to you, but there is another factor you may not have considered: What are you doing to be loyal to them?

Great customer service is the simple answer to this question.

Another answer is to make sure you recognize them as individuals beyond just a collective customer base. When customers feel valued in a personal way, the experience shifts their perception and they become advocates for your brand.

What else can you be doing to improve the customer experience in 2018? Download our 2018 Customer Loyalty Guide to find out.



Source: KiteWheel

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Loyalty Tip: Think Beyond Products & Purchases

Today’s consumers no longer want to simply purchase a product – they want to purchase an experience.

The strongest brands are those that think holistically about the experience they offer – from the emotional effect they have on the consumer to the sense of social identity they create among customers.

Brands can no longer simply communicate. They must connect.

customer loyalty

Creating the optimal brand experience will help engage customers, retain them and keep them happy. Today more retailers are reaching beyond traditional points-based loyalty programs to strengthen brand affinity and engage their customers with experiences that keep them coming back. Don’t get caught in the trap of developing loyalty program strategies that are narrowly focused on what products your customers buy and how often. Think about the story you are telling…and the story your customers will tell about you.

Want more? View our 2018 Customer Loyalty Guide to discover 10 ways you can make customers fall in love with your brand and get more value out of your loyalty program in 2018

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Putting the Customer at the Heart of Every Decision Helps Elevate Brand Loyalty at Abercrombie & Fitch

This article, written by Jim Tierney, was originally published by Loyalty 360 on November 20, 2017.

Armed with a fast-growing, highly engaging customer loyalty programAbercrombie & Fitch has made progress toward renewed brand loyalty.

CEO Fran Horowitz was excited about the company’s progress during its third-quarter earnings call on Friday.

“I am pleased to report another quarter of meaningful progress across all our brands, as we continue to execute against our strategic plan,” Horowitz said. “We delivered another quarter of sequential comparable sales improvement and a return to positive comparable sales for the quarter. We maintained strategic investment in omnichannel and marketing while managing our expenses effectively, resulting in operating expense leverage and profit growth. Putting our customers at the center of every decision we make and everything we do remains a North Star for us. That singular focus is reflected in our people, our processes, and our product, and we see that focus translating into positive overall traffic and conversion trends across the brands.”

It was a particularly strong quarter at Hollister, with sales growth across all channels and geographies.

“At Abercrombie, we drove further improvements and are seeing some early signs of stabilization,” Horowitz said. “We continue to apply our playbook across the brands, which calls for a relentless focus on our customer. The results are clear. When we align our products, brand voice, and brand experience, we see improved traffic and conversion as we did this quarter. Those areas in which we are investing our time and money are delivering and in a still-promotional environment. This quarter’s performance with a broad-based improvement across brands and genders is validation that our playbook is working.”

What’s more the company made progress in Direct-to-Consumer with an 11 percent increase in sales year-over-year?

“The shift to mobile continued, particularly with our customer,” Horowitz said. “More than two-thirds of our DTC traffic comes from mobile. The investments we’ve made here are paying off, as phone and app productivity growth continue, driven by double-digit improvement in conversion on these platforms. We continue to build on our strength in omnichannel, with an ongoing international rollout of capability. In concert with these investments, we have made further strides with our physical stores, driving improved productivity from our new prototype and remodeled stores. We continue to retain the flexibility to allow for the most effective melding of the physical and digital worlds, optimizing our customers’ engagement with our brands.”

Keeping the focus on the customer also requires high levels of responsiveness and adaptability.

“This quarter, the team continued to spend significant time in stores across the brands, leading to better testing, sharper insights, and faster responses,” Horowitz said. “Our read and react programs ensure we have our must-have items and categories available in just in the colors and sizes we need and that we do not disappoint our customers. Leveraging these capabilities, we responded to strong third quarter and back-to-school business to ensure we are positioned for holiday. I can confidently say that we’re increasingly effective at engaging our customers whenever, wherever, and however they choose to shop.”


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With Adidas, Personalization is Key


Recent News:

Adidas shuns TV ads; launches new app focused on personalization

Adidas has reinforced its decision to dump TV advertising in favor of digital with the launch of a new personalized app. The app, unveiled at Dreamforce and live in the US, offers a complete online store, personalized news feed and a chatbot.

It will show up customized product recommendations and tailored content such as articles, videos and blog posts based on products each user is interested in. For example, those that have said they are interested in running will be shown relevant products and content, while those who buy Adidas lifestyle products will receive updates tailored to that.

“The app gets to know the consumer’s sport and style preferences and learns from his or her behavior and interaction with Adidas across all our digital touch points,” Head of digital brand commerce at Adidas, Joseph Godsey said.

“The most relevant news stories, articles, blog posts, videos and events announcements are surfaced to engage with the consumer on what they are passionate about. It will take into account preferred sizes and colors and shows availability based on the consumer’s country location.”

Source: https://www.marketingweek.com/2017/11/09/international-round-up-adidas-pg

Inte Q Insights:

Expert opinion provided by Chris Duncan, CMO, Inte Q

Personalization is now one of the biggest digital trends brands are chasing. Today’s consumer wants to purchase more than just a product. They’re looking for an individualized experience.

Adidas has done a phenomenal job using data to drive their marketing decisions. They shifted away from TV advertising in favor of developing a more personal experience through a mobile app.  This allows them to create a direct connection with the customer and control the entire customer experience.

Providing a customer experience that is well-aligned with the consumer’s preferences and specific needs will take a brand far. Brands at the forefront of this trend are aspiring to create websites that offer content customized for each individual – leading to greater customer engagement and increased customer love for the brand.

Your ability to personalize heavily depends on the data available to you and how well you know your customer.


inte q, inteq, customer loyalty

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How to: An Omnichannel Approach to Beating Amazon This Holiday Season

The article below, written by Andrew Fegley was originally posted by MarketingProfs.

We’re prepping for one of the biggest seasons in retail, and a few new data points might be dropping an unpleasant piece of coal in retailers’ stockings for the 2017 holiday shopping season.

Here are a few points that jumped out at me. NetElixer predicts a 10% increase in e-commerce sales this season, but that’s down compared with the 11% increase in 2016. The biggest reason: an increase in spending with Amazon, which is expected to jump from 30% in 2016 to 34% in 2017. And 55% of shoppers are already in research mode before October (meaning, they’re buying as you read), according to NRF’s 2017 Retail Playbook.

So, how can your business react to consumer behaviors—and try to beat the retail giant that is Amazon?

Here are five innovative ways to keep driving revenue this holiday retail season through next-generation remarketing.

1. Uncover surprising trends via on-site data

We’re so frequently focused on data points like add-to-cart and time-on-site. But the challenge around data is that it’s only as smart as the questions you ask of it. If you have the right technology in place, you’ll be able to ask bigger questions about the entire prospect and customer journey.

Answering those questions now—instead of in the midst of the holiday season—will help you determine your best prospects to home in on so you can drive more conversions.

2. Don’t wait to start using holiday-focused messaging

One of my favorite insights from NRF: While many retailers use words like “Holiday” in their email campaigns during November and December, few test that language during prime research and shopping months of September and October. If you missed the boat this year, it isn’t too early to start incorporating this idea into your 2018 marketing strategy.

For marketers fast enough to pivot, that offers a ripe chance to respond ahead of the competition—and a chance to snag the sale before Amazon does.

3. Drive ROI by responding to your best new prospects

Your website traffic is probably soaring during the holidays, thanks to your paid search efforts. But the big question: Are you making the most of it?

New technologies can help your company turn anonymous website visitors into prospects through identity-resolution—allowing you to reach out with personalized marketing that responds to the specific product and category those visitors were interested in.

With targeted information about your prospects, you can deliver personalized communications that reflect the product category that the prospect was perusing. The result: those prospects are more likely to convert.

This is a prime season to test technology at scale—and see what types of new revenue you can drive.

4. Focus on customer loyalty, now

One way to maximize performance is to target your existing loyal customers with personalized messaging and offers that encourage them to act now. After all, they’ve already expressed interest in your products and brand by making a purchase.

Hold a Loyal Customers Only holiday flash sale via direct mail or email now to get ahead of the holiday rush, with a personalized code that makes those customers feel like insiders. A one-day-only pre-holiday sale for your most loyal customers can keep your brand top of mind—and give you an early boost on holiday sales.

Amazon might be able to deliver faster, but you have the ability to personalize and time your messages in a way that gets the sale first.

5. Send your direct mail now—and make sure it’s driving to the right place

Direct mail requires smart online data—and the ability to reach out to your best prospects and customers quickly and easily with personalized messaging. During the holidays, that’s no different, but there’s an opportunity here to test where you send your prospects through your direct mail efforts.

Rather than landing them on the homepage, why not send a piece of direct mail that responds to the category they’ve already been browsing on your website? Thanks to advances in data and identity resolution, that intelligence is at your fingertips. This way, your customers and prospects won’t feel like they’re being sent just another piece of marketing collateral—but rather a personal offer from your organization.

* * *

Every holiday season comes with its own challenges and opportunities—and this year is no different. As a marketer, your job is to work ahead of your competitors, especially Amazon, and establish a relationship with prospects to drive them to buy.

We realize in retail, it’s all about holiday and you have most likely been planning for this season all year. Pay special attention to your performance this year, and as you plan for 2018 keep these five key opportunities to stand out from the crowd in mind.

With advanced marketing strategies and the right technology, you can set your organization up for success – and make sure Amazon isn’t eating too much of your profits.


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The Best Loyalty Programs Go Beyond Rewards

The article below was originally written by Shep Hyken  and was published by Forbes on March 25, 2017.

Most people think of loyalty programs as an airline that gives miles to frequent fliers, a hotel that gives points toward a stay or a restaurant that offers a punch card incentive. While these may be called loyalty programs, I’ll argue that they are actually marketing programs disguised as loyalty programs. And while I don’t have a problem with this concept, we need to have a clear understanding of the differences between loyalty and marketing.

Some customers choose to be loyal to the airline, hotel, restaurant, etc., because of points more than anything else. Human nature kicks in and the “member” of the loyalty program becomes fixated on earning points. That’s why passengers will fly an airline with which they have the most points, even if it means paying more for a ticket. The bottom line is that these customer loyalty programs do work to drive sales and create repeat customers.

Howard Schneider is the senior consultant for Kobie Marketing and a career veteran in what he calls “the loyalty marketing space.” Notice that Schneider positions those two words, loyalty and marketing, right next to each other.

Schneider says, “Savvy and strategic companies are now looking beyond these rewards programs to delight, create and retain loyal customers. They are looking to solve customers’ problems and soothe pain points.”

Loyalty-programs-quoteHe shared some thoughts on how smart companies are taking their loyalty to the next level. It’s more than just points, even more than marketing. It’s creating a convenient experience for the customer, one that customers want to use. In many cases today, companies are doing this by providing an app for customers’ smartphones.

For example, members of the reward program can download a mobile app to their phones and then use it to check the status of their hotel room, check in when the room is ready and even use the phone as a key to get into the room. All of this without ever having to visit the front desk. Once you learn how to use it, which is a simple process, you find it more convenient to do business with Hilton. And, the company that is most convenient and easy to business with wins.

Then there are what Schneider refers to as lifestyle apps, such as those offered by Starbucks and Walgreens.

The Starbucks app is the perfect example of this. In addition to a rewards program, the customer can use the app to place an order, pay for the order and even access streamed music. As members earn stars toward rewards in the My Starbucks Rewards program, they can redeem the rewards in real time. The app reinforces the Starbucks brand as a lifestyle enhancement.

Walgreens has an app that allows customers to refill prescriptions, monitor their orders, pay using their phone, and earn and redeem awards in the Balance Rewards program. Like the Starbucks app, it is a lifestyle app that keeps Walgreens top of mind with its customers.

And, you can’t talk about loyalty programs without mentioning Amazon Prime. When the program began, the membership fee paid to Amazon provided Prime members with free shipping. Today there is much more. For $99 a year, the program offers not only free shipping, but also other benefits such as live streaming music, movies and TV shows, storage for digital photos and more. Amazon Prime is integrated into the customer’s life. For the person who takes full advantage of the Amazon Prime membership, the benefits can far exceed the annual fee. And as a result of paying for a membership, the customer will buy more often from Amazon. Amazon also offers apps for its website, music, TV and movies and more.

Customers will remember their experience with a brand long after they’ve forgotten a discount. Companies cultivate true customer loyalty by making customers’ lives easier and making sure each engagement – whether in-person or in-app – is valuable for them,” says Schneider.

When a rewards program can be moved from a punch card to an app, opportunities to interact and build customer loyalty grow exponentially. Points, miles and punch cards are just the start – an app can include features that are limited only by imagination. And the convenience of using an app is a powerful driver of loyalty. It’s human nature to stay with a company that is easy to do business with. Once customers know how the company operates and how to use the website or mobile app, they can rely on a consistent experience, and customers like consistency. It creates confidence. That’s what drives loyalty.